Animal Resource Development

Dairy Farming in Odisha
    In Odisha total annual production of Milk in 2012-13 was 1784 thousand metric tons. Though India ranks first in the world in milk production, Odisha contribution of Odisha is less than two percent of the total production of milk. Production of milk increased from 1,651 TMT in 2009-10 to 1,861 TMT in 2013-14. Most of the milk in Odisha is produced on farms with marginal to small landholdings, less than 2 hectares, and with 3 or 4 animals (95%). Even by Indian standards, milk yields in Odisha are extremely low (1/4 of the Indian average). The small dairy farmers indicate that they would tend to persist in dairying activities as long as alternative employment opportunities are not available in their area.
    It is observed that though the per capita availability of milk has increased from 115 gm/day in 2007- 08 to 117 gm/day in 2013-14, it is still far behind the all India per capita availability of milk 290 gm/day in 2011-12 and world average of 284 gm/day in 2009-10. OMFED was established in 1980 as the apex body for milk procurement and marketing in Odisha.
    The main objective of OMFED is to promote, produce, procure, process and market milk and milk products for economic development of the rural farming community. It covers all the districts of the State. There are 5,281 Milk Producers Co-operative Societies (MPCS) with 2.72 lakh members under OMFED.
   Major Milk Producing States during the Year 2012-13

S.No State Production (‘000 MT)
1 Uttar Pradesh 23330
2 Andhra Pradesh 12762
3 Gujarat 10315
4 Madhya Pradesh 8838
5 Maharashtra 8734
6 Odisha 1784
  India 132491

Source: Economic Survey 2014-15
   
    For a sustainable dairy industry it is a must to ensure adequate availability of fodder throughout the year. It is therefore suggested that along with dairy farming, thrust may be given for fodder cultivation. This will help in reducing the cost of feed and ensure adequate & timely availability of fodder. Besides, entrepreneurs/ farmers must be encouraged to undertake production of value added milk products such as cheese, ghee, paneer, curd, etc. This will help in making the venture more profitable.
   
Poultry farming in Odisha
    Poultry has been the fastest growing sector in providing employment and income to a significant number of people in the state. The backyard poultry also plays a vital role in supporting livelihoods of million poor people particularly the tribal and the scheduled caste.
    There are 8 State Poultry farms and two Duck breeding farms functioning in the State under Central assistance, having present parent stock capacity of 8,665 low- input technology poultry birds and 670 ducks. Presently, about 4,792 broiler farms with commercial broiler bird strength of 85.63lakh are in operation. Broiler placements are to the extent of 20 to 25 lakh day-old –chicks per week and 18 to 23 lakh adult broiler birds are entering to the market for meat purpose and against which annual poultry production for 2011-12 comes to 65 TMT with per-capita availability of poultry meat 3 kg./P.A. OPOLFED, a State level apex poultry cooperative organization, functions at Bhubaneswar to popularize poultry products and develop a market for them. OPOLFED has undertaken marketing of eggs and chicken meat, production of chicks and balanced premixed poultry. At present, 107 PPCS/WPCSs are affiliated to OPOLFED. During 2013-14, OPOLFED sold about 33.87 lakh eggs valued at Rs. 1.25 crore, 58,520 kg chicken meat (32,19 chicken) valued at Rs.82.80 lakh and 389 M.T poultry feed valued at Rs 76.18 lakh.
    As per the recommendations of Indian Nutritional Academy, Hyderabad, there should be consumption of 182 eggs per head per annum. At the National level 56 eggs per person are consumed annually while the State average is 55 eggs per person annually. Keeping the huge gap in demand & supply of layers emphasis must be given to promote commercial layer farming in the State. This will help in providing subsidiary income and gainful employment to youths of the State.
   
   
Goat & Sheep Farming
    The small ruminants provide livelihood support to the poor, underprivileged, landless and marginal farm households. The goat and sheep production systems are mainly subsistence oriented but in view of the rising demand for meat, there is a great scope for their commercialization. Goat & sheep are the main species for meat and has all the characteristics required for efficient meat production viz. high prolificacy, more than one breeding season in a year, higher milk production and capacity to bear twins and triplets.
    Therefore, emphasis must be given for commercial goat and sheep farming in the State.