Agriculture

The State has about 64.09 lakh hectares of cultivable area out of total geographical area of 155.711 lakh hectares, accounting for 41.16 percent. Total cultivated area is about 61.50 lakh hectares. About 40.17 lakh hectares of cultivable area has acidic soil and approx. 4.00 lakh hectares of area suffers from salinity. That apart, nearly 3.00 lakh hectares of cultivable area suffers from water logging. Agriculture sector contributes about 16% of the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). About 65% of the workforce depends on agriculture for employment /livelihood.

The average size of land holding in the State is 1.25 ha. Small and marginal farmers constitute about 83% of the farming community.

The State is divided into 10 Agro-climatic zones on the basis of soil structure, humidity, elevation, topography, vegetation, rainfall and other agro-climatic factors. The average rainfall in the State is 1452 mm, of which about 80% is confined to monsoon months (June-September). The total irrigation potential created is 30.89 lakh hectares in Kharif and 15.01 lakh hectares in Rabi.

Rice is the main crop of the State. The total rice production in the State during 2012-13 is estimated to be 94.29 lakh tons. This is the highest ever achieved in the State. The area and production of major crops during the year 2015-16 is furnished  below.

Area and Production of major crops of Odisha during 2015-16.

Name of the Crop Area
in ‘000 Hects

Production

in ‘000 MT/Bales

Rice (DE &S) 3941.51 5875.37
(Paddy)   8902.07
Wheat 3.61 6.35
Jowar 6.21 3.89
Bajra 2.11 1.29
Maize 239.18 666.40
Ragi 147.29 127.65
Small millets 25.35 12.70
Total Cereals 4365.26 6693.65
Arhar 138.29 122.52
Mung 768.89 361.07
Biri 522.90 234.07
Kulthi 194.96 75.45
Gram 39.18 30.13
Field pea 28.10 20.74
Lentil 7.48 3.90
Cowpea 48.84 35.32
Other pulses 116.02 52.89
Total Pulses 1864.66 936.09
Total Foodgrains 6229.92 7629.74
Total Oilseeds 630.67 564.29
Total Fibres 144.29 426.81
Total Vegetables 650.97 9067.65
Total Spices 161.56 652.25
Sugarcane 28.98 2107.34
(SOURCE: Directorate of Agril. &F .P., Odisha)